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المساهمات : 44
تاريخ التسجيل : 27/10/2009

مُساهمةموضوع: Punctuation   الأحد نوفمبر 01, 2009 3:43 am

Uses Examples
Capital • for the first letter of a Fishing is popular in Britain.
letter sentence
• for countries, Portugal, Africa, Russian,
nationalities, languages, Moslem
religions, names of Joanne, John, Dubai, Geneva,
people, places, events, the World Trade Fair, Jaguar,
organizations, trademarks, the Internet, Sunday, February,
days, months, titles Mr. / Mrs. / Ms. / Dr. / Professor
• for titles of books, films,
etc. Silence of the Lambs
• for abbreviations OPEC, AIDS, WWF
Full stop UK/ • at the end of a sentence I’m going for a walk.
period US • sometimes after an Marton Rd. / Mrs. White /
abbreviation Dr. Evans
• as the decimal point in £3.5 million
figures and amounts of
money. This is usually
read out as ‘point’
• to separate parts of email http://dictionary.cambridge.org
and web addresses. This
is read out as ‘dot’
Question • after a direct question What’s your name?
mark • to show doubt Sidney Morgan (1898? – 1972)
was little known until after
his death.
Exclamation • at the end of a sentence I can’t believe it!
mark in order to show surprise/ Ouch! Yes!
shock, etc.
• to indicate a loud sound Bang!
Comma • between items in a list I need peas, butter, sugar and
• to show a pause in a long They didn’t want to eat before
sentence I’d arrived, but I was an hour late.
• when you want to add Lucy, who I told you about
extra information before, will be coming.
• before tag questions You do love me, don’t you?
centre 36 STUDY PAGES
STUDY PAGES centre 37
Uses Examples
Apostrophe • for missing letters I’ll (I will), it’s (it is), don’t (do not)
• for possessives Noah’s bike
1. words ending in ‘s’ don’t James’ house
need another ‘s’ added
2. it’s can only be an It’s raining.
abbreviation for it is or it Paris never loses its charm.
has. There is no apostrophe
in the possessive form.
colon • to introduce a list or a You need the following: paint,
quotation in a sentence brushes, water, cloths.
• in the US following the Dear Customer:
greeting in a business Dear Mr Stein:
semi-colon • to separate two parts of I spoke to Linda on Monday;
a sentence she can’t come to the meeting
hyphen • to join two words blue-black
• to show that a word has Everyone in the room was
been divided and struck by his air of sadness.
continues on the next line
dash • to separate parts of The car – the one with the
sentences broken window – was parked
outside our house.
• to mean to The London – Edinburgh train
leaves every morning at eight.
quotation • to show that words are ‘I’m tired,’ she said.
marks/ spoken “Let’s go,” he suggested.
UK also • to show that someone else She had described the school
inverted originally wrote the words as ‘not attracting the best
commas Note: Single quotation marks pupils’.
are more usual in UK English,
and double quotation marks
are more usual in US English.

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